Acticlate

Acticin information, interactions and side effects, ACTICLATE™ (doxycycline hyclate USP) Tablets contain doxycycline hyclate, a broad-spectrum antibacterial synthetically derived from oxytetracycline, in an immediate release formulation for oral administration.

The structural formula for doxycycline hyclate is:

acticlate

with a molecular formula of (C22H24N2O8, HCl)2• C2H6O• H2O and a molecular weight of 1025.87.

The chemical designation for doxycycline hyclate is:

4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride, compound with ethyl alcohol (2:1), monohydrate.

Doxycycline hyclate is a yellow crystalline powder soluble in water and in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. Inactive ingredients in the tablet formulation are: microcrystalline cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, croscarmellose sodium and magnesium stearate. Film-coating contains: polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, FD&C Blue #1 (75 mg), FD&C Yellow #6 (75 mg), FD&C Blue #2 (150 mg) and yellow iron oxide (150 mg).

INDICATIONS

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ACTICLATE and other antibacterial drugs, ACTICLATE should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Doxycycline is a tetracycline-class antibacterial indicated in the following conditions or diseases:

Rickettsial Infections

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

Granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.

Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.

Respiratory Tract Infections

Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydophila psittaci.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following microorganisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.

Respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.

Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Specific Bacterial Infections

Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.

Plague due to Yersinia pestis.

Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis.

Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.

Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.

Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).

Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Escherichia coli

Enterobacter aerogenes

Shigella species

Acinetobacter species

Urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.

Ophthalmic Infections

Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence.

Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

Anthrax Including Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

Alternative Treatment For Selected Infections When Penicillin Is Contraindicated

When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:

Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.

Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.

Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.

Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.

Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.

Infections caused by Clostridium species.

Adjunctive Therapy For Acute Intestinal Amebiasis And Severe Acne

In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

Prophylaxis Of Malaria

Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (less than 4 months) to areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Usual Dosage And Administration

The usual dosage and frequency of administration of doxycycline differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of side effects.

Adults: The usual dose of oral doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours), followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg daily. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours. In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended.

For pediatric patients above eight years of age: The recommended dosage schedule for children weighing 45 kg or less is 4.4 mg per kg of body weight divided into two doses on the first day of treatment, followed by 2.2 mg per kg of body weight given as a single daily dose or divided into two doses on subsequent days. For more severe infections, up to 4.4 mg per kg of body weight may be used. For children over 45 kg, the usual adult dose should be used.

Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.

If gastric irritation occurs, doxycycline may be given with food or milk.

When used in streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days.

Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: 100 mg by mouth twice a day for 7 days.

Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice-a-day for 7 days. As an alternate single visit dose, administer 300 mg stat followed in one hour by a second 300 mg dose.

Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum: 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 7 days.

Syphilis – early: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 2 weeks.

Syphilis of more than one year’s duration: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice-a-day for 4 weeks.

Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by N. gonorrhoeae: 100 mg by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.

Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by C. trachomatis: 100 mg, by mouth, twice-a-day for at least 10 days.

Prophylaxis Of Malaria

For adults, the recommended dose is 100 mg daily. For children over 8 years of age, the recommended dose is 2 mg per kg given once daily up to the adult dose. Prophylaxis should begin 1 or 2 days before travel to the malarious area. Prophylaxis should be continued daily during travel in the malarious area and for 4 weeks after the traveler leaves the malarious area.

Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

Adults: 100 mg, of doxycycline, by mouth, twice-a-day for 60 days.

Children: weighing less than 45 kg, 2.2 mg per kg of body weight, by mouth, twice-a-day for 60 days. Children weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose.

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strengths

ACTICLATE™ (doxycycline hyclate USP) Tablets, 75 mg are round, convex, light-teal, film-coated, tablets with “75” debossed on one side of the tablet and “AQ101” debossed on the other.

ACTICLATE™ (doxycycline hyclate USP) Tablets, 150 mg are oval-shaped, convex, mossy-green, film-coated tablets. Each side of the functionally scored tablet has two parallel score lines for splitting into 3 equal portions with “A” debossed on each portion of one side of the tablet, and no debossing on the other.

Storage And Handling

ACTICLATE™ (doxycycline hyclate USP) Tablets, 75 mg

Bottles of 60 tablets: NDC 16110-501-01

ACTICLATE™ (doxycycline hyclate USP) Tablets, 150 mg

Bottles of 60 tablets: NDC 16110-502-01

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). Protect from light and moisture. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

SIDE EFFECTS

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of doxycycline hyclate tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Due to oral doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:

Gastrointestinal

Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region. Hepatotoxicity has been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed.

Skin

Maculopapular and erythematous rashes, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, and erythema multiforme have been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above.

Renal

Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose-related.

Hypersensitivity reactions

Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, and exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Blood

Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.

Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Thyroid Gland Changes

When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function are known to occur.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Anticoagulant Drugs

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

Penicillin

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.

Antacids And Iron Preparations

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, bismuth subsalicylate, and iron-containing preparations.

Oral Contraceptives

Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.

Barbiturates And Anti-Epileptics

Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.

Penthrane®

The concurrent use of tetracycline and Penthrane® (methoxyflurane) has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.

Drug And Laboratory Test Interactions

False elevations of urinary catecholamines may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

PRECAUTIONS

Tooth Development

The use of drugs of the tetracycline-class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Doxycycline should not be used in this age group, except for anthrax, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated.

Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ACTICLATE, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Photosensitivity

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

Superinfection

As with other antibacterial preparations, use of ACTICLATE may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibacterial should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including ACTICLATE. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and ACTICLATE should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri.

Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize.

Skeletal Development

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg per kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity also has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. Tetracycline-class drugs can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman, but data for doxycycline are limited. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking these drugs, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Antianabolic Action

The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

Malaria

Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium strains.

Doxycycline does not suppress P. falciparum’s sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas.

Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing ACTICLATE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Laboratory Monitoring For Long-Term Therapy

In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal and hepatic studies should be performed.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of doxycycline have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibacterials, oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors) and minocycline (thyroid tumors). Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of doxycycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays have been reported for related antibacterials (tetracycline, oxytetracycline).

Doxycycline administered orally at dosage levels as high as 250 mg per kg per day had no apparent effect on the fertility of female rats. Effect on male fertility has not been studied.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category D

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of doxycycline in pregnant women. The vast majority of reported experience with doxycycline during human pregnancy is short-term, first trimester exposure. There are no human data available to assess the effects of long-term therapy of doxycycline in pregnant women such as that proposed for the treatment of anthrax exposure. An expert review of published data on experiences with doxycycline use during pregnancy by TERIS – the Teratogen Information System – concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (the quantity and quality of data were assessed as limited to fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no risk.1

A case-control study (18,515 mothers of infants with congenital anomalies and 32,804 mothers of infants with no congenital anomalies) shows a weak but marginally statistically significant association with total malformations and use of doxycycline anytime during pregnancy. Sixty-three (0.19%) of the controls and 56 (0.30%) of the cases were treated with doxycycline. This association was not seen when the analysis was confined to maternal treatment during the period of organogenesis (that is, in the second and third months of gestation), with the exception of a marginal relationship with neural tube defect based on only two-exposed cases.2

A small prospective study of 81 pregnancies describes 43 pregnant women treated for 10 days with doxycycline during early first trimester. All mothers reported their exposed infants were normal at 1 year of age.3

Nonteratogenic effects

Nursing Mothers

Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk, however, the extent of absorption of tetracyclines including doxycycline, by the breastfed infant is not known. Short-term use by lactating women is not necessarily contraindicated. The effects of prolonged exposure to doxycycline in breast milk are unknown4. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Because of the effects of drugs of the tetracycline-class on tooth development and growth, ACTICLATE should not be used in pediatric patients to the age of 8 years, unless the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks such as for anthrax, or when other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of doxycycline hyclate tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

ACTICLATE Tablets, 75 mg contain 0.34 mg (0.0146 mEq) of sodium.

ACTICLATE Tablets, 150 mg contain 0.68 mg (0.0295 mEq) of sodium.

OVERDOSE

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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