Adenoscan information, interactions and side effects, Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside occurring in all cells of the body. It is chemically 6amino-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9-H-purine and has the following structural formula:
Adenosine is a white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and practically insoluble in alcohol.
Solubility increases by warming and lowering the pH of the solution. Each Adenoscan vial contains a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution of adenosine 3 mg/mL and sodium chloride 9 mg/mL in Water for Injection, q.s. The pH of the solution is between 4.5 and 7.5.
Intravenous Adenoscan is indicated as an adjunct to thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients unable to exercise adequately.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
For intravenous infusion only.
Adenoscan should be given as a continuous peripheral intravenous infusion.
The recommended intravenous dose for adults is 140 mcg/kg/min infused for six minutes (total dose of 0.84 mg/kg).
The required dose of thallium-201 should be injected at the midpoint of the Adenoscan infusion (i.e., after the first three minutes of Adenoscan). Thallium-201 is physically compatible with Adenoscan and may be injected directly into the Adenoscan infusion set.
The injection should be as close to the venous access as possible to prevent an inadvertent increase in the dose of Adenoscan (the contents of the IV tubing) being administered.
There are no data on the safety or efficacy of alternative Adenoscan infusion protocols.
The safety and efficacy of Adenoscan administered by the intracoronary route have not been established.
The following Adenoscan infusion nomogram may be used to determine the appropriate infusion rate corrected for total body weight:
||Infusion Rate mL/min
This nomogram was derived from the following general formula:
0.140 (mg/kg/min) x total body weight (kg)/ Adenoscan concentration (3mg / mL) = Infusion rate (mL/min)
Note: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
Adenoscan (adenosine injection) is supplied as 20 mL and 30 mL vials of sterile, nonpyrogenic solution in normal saline.
NDC 0469-0871-20 Product Code 87120
60 mg/20 mL (3 mg/mL) in a 20 mL single-dose, flip-top glass vial, packaged individually and in packages of ten.
NDC 0469-0871-30 Product Code 87130
90 mg/30 mL (3 mg/mL) in a 30 mL single-dose, flip-top glass vial, packaged individually and in packages of ten.
Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F)
Do not refrigerate as crystallization may occur. If crystallization has occurred, dissolve crystals by warming to room temperature. The solution must be clear at the time of use. Contains no preservative. Discard unused portion.
The following reactions with an incidence of at least 1% were reported with intravenous Adenoscan among 1421 patients enrolled in controlled and uncontrolled U.S. clinical trials. Despite the short half-life of adenosine, 10.6% of the side effects occurred not with the infusion of Adenoscan but several hours after the infusion terminated. Also, 8.4% of the side effects that began coincident with the infusion persisted for up to 24 hours after the infusion was complete. In many cases, it is not possible to know whether these late adverse events are the result of Adenoscan infusion.
|Dyspnea or urge to breathe deeply
|Throat, neck or jaw discomfort
|Upper extremity discomfort
|ST segment depression
|First-degree AV block
|Second-degree AV block
Adverse experiences of any severity reported in less than 1% of patients include:
Body as a Whole
Back discomfort; lower extremity discomfort; weakness
Nonfatal myocardial infarction; life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia; third-degree AV block; bradycardia; palpitation; sinus exit block; sinus pause; sweating; T-wave changes; hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 200 mm Hg)
Central Nervous System
Drowsiness; emotional instability; tremors
Vaginal pressure; urgency
Blurred vision; dry mouth; ear discomfort; metallic taste; nasal congestion; scotomas; tongue discomfort
Post Marketing Experience
The following adverse events have been reported from marketing experience with Adenoscan. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, are associated with concomitant diseases and multiple drug therapies and surgical procedures, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these events in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the event, (2) frequency of the reporting, (3) strength of causal connection to the drug, or a combination of these factors.
Body as a Whole
Injection site reaction
Fatal and nonfatal cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmia
Central Nervous System
Seizure activity, including tonic clonic (grand mal) seizures, and loss of consciousness
Nausea and vomiting
Respiratory arrest, throat tightness
Intravenous Adenoscan (adenosine injection) has been given with other cardioactive drugs (such as beta adrenergic blocking agents, cardiac glycosides, and calcium channel blockers) without apparent adverse interactions, but its effectiveness with these agents has not been systematically evaluated. Because of the potential for additive or synergistic depressant effects on the SA and AV nodes, however, Adenoscan should be used with caution in the presence of these agents.
The vasoactive effects of Adenoscan are inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonists, such as methylxanthines (e.g., caffeine and theophylline). The safety and efficacy of Adenoscan in the presence of these agents has not been systematically evaluated.
The vasoactive effects of Adenoscan are potentiated by nucleoside transport inhibitors, such as dipyridamole. The safety and efficacy of Adenoscan in the presence of dipyridamole has not been systematically evaluated.
Whenever possible, drugs that might inhibit or augment the effects of adenosine should be withheld for at least five half-lives prior to the use of Adenoscan.
Fatal Cardiac Arrest, Ventricular Arrhythmias, And Myocardial Infarction
Fatal and nonfatal cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (requiring resuscitation), and myocardial infarction have occurred following Adenoscan infusion. Avoid use in patients with symptoms or signs of acute myocardial ischemia, for example, unstable angina or cardiovascular instability; these patients may be at greater risk of serious cardiovascular reactions to Adenoscan. Appropriate resuscitative measures should be available.
Sinoatrial And Atrioventricular Nodal Block
Adenoscan (adenosine injection) exerts a direct depressant effect on the SA and AV nodes and has the potential to cause first-, second- or third-degree AV block, or sinus bradycardia. Approximately 6.3% of patients develop AV block with Adenoscan, including first-degree (2.9%), second-degree (2.6%), and third-degree (0.8%) heart block. Adenoscan can cause sinus bradycardia. Adenoscan should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing first-degree AV block or bundle branch block and should be avoided in patients with high-grade AV block or sinus node dysfunction (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker). Adenoscan should be discontinued in any patient who develops persistent or symptomatic high-grade AV block. Sinus pause has been rarely observed with adenosine infusions.
Adenoscan (adenosine injection) is a potent peripheral vasodilator and can cause significant hypotension. Patients with an intact baroreceptor reflex mechanism are able to maintain blood pressure and tissue perfusion in response to Adenoscan by increasing heart rate and cardiac output. However, Adenoscan should be used with caution in patients with autonomic dysfunction, stenotic valvular heart disease, pericarditis or pericardial effusions, stenotic carotid artery disease with cerebrovascular insufficiency, or uncorrected hypovolemia, due to the risk of hypotensive complications in these patients. Adenoscan should be discontinued in any patient who develops persistent or symptomatic hypotension.
Increases in systolic and diastolic pressure have been observed (as great as 140 mm Hg systolic in one case) concomitant with Adenoscan infusion; most increases resolved spontaneously within several minutes, but in some cases, hypertension lasted for several hours.
Adenoscan (adenosine injection) is a respiratory stimulant (probably through activation of carotid body chemoreceptors) and intravenous administration in man has been shown to increase minute ventilation (Ve) and reduce arterial PCO2 causing respiratory alkalosis. Approximately 28% of patients experience breathlessness (dyspnea) or an urge to breathe deeply with Adenoscan. These respiratory complaints are transient and only rarely require intervention.
Adenosine administered by inhalation has been reported to cause bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients, presumably due to mast cell degranulation and histamine release. These effects have not been observed in normal subjects. Adenoscan has been administered to a limited number of patients with asthma and mild to moderate exacerbation of their symptoms has been reported. Respiratory compromise has occurred during adenosine infusion in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. Adenoscan should be used with caution in patients with obstructive lung disease not associated with bronchoconstriction (e.g., emphysema, bronchitis, etc.) and should be avoided in patients with bronchoconstriction or bronchospasm (e.g., asthma). Adenoscan should be discontinued in any patient who develops severe respiratory difficulties.
Atrial fibrillation has been reported in patients (with and without a history of atrial fibrillation) undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging with adenosine infusion. In these cases, atrial fibrillation began 1.5 to 3 minutes after initiation of adenosine, lasted for 15 seconds to 6 hours, and spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Adenoscan (adenosine injection). Adenosine was negative for genotoxic potential in the Salmonella (Ames Test) and Mammalian Microsome Assay.
Adenosine, however, like other nucleosides at millimolar concentrations present for several doubling times of cells in culture, is known to produce a variety of chromosomal alterations. Fertility studies in animals have not been conducted with adenosine.
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with adenosine; nor have studies been performed in pregnant women. Because it is not known whether Adenoscan can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women, Adenoscan should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
The safety and effectiveness of Adenoscan in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
Clinical studies of Adenoscan did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged younger than 65 years to determine whether they respond differently. Other reported experience has not revealed clinically relevant differences of the response of elderly in comparison to younger patients. Greater sensitivity of some older individuals, however, cannot be ruled out.
The half-life of adenosine is less than 10 seconds and side effects of Adenoscan (when they occur) usually resolve quickly when the infusion is discontinued, although delayed or persistent effects have been observed. Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are competitive adenosine receptor antagonists and theophylline has been used to effectively terminate persistent side effects. In controlled U.S. clinical trials, theophylline (50-125 mg slow intravenous injection) was needed to abort Adenoscan side effects in less than 2% of patients.
Intravenous Adenoscan (adenosine injection) should not be administered to individuals with:
- Second- or third-degree AV block (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker).
- Sinus node disease, such as sick sinus syndrome or symptomatic bradycardia (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker).
- Known or suspected bronchoconstrictive or bronchospastic lung disease (e.g., asthma).
- Known hypersensitivity to adenosine.