Agrylin information, interactions and side effects, Anagrelide hydrochloride is an off-white powder. It is very slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide.
AGRYLIN is supplied as capsules for oral administration, containing 0.5 mg of anagrelide base (as anagrelide hydrochloride). The capsules also contain anhydrous lactose NF, crospovidone NF, lactose monohydrate NF, magnesium stearate NF, microcrystalline cellulose NF, and povidone NF as inactive ingredients. The capsule shell contains gelatin, titanium dioxide and black iron oxide.
AGRYLIN (anagrelide hydrochloride) is a platelet-reducing agent. Its chemical name is 6,7-dichloro-1,5dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-2(3H)-one monohydrochloride monohydrate. The molecular formula is C10H7Cl2N3O•HCl•H2O which corresponds to a molecular weight of 310.55. The structural formula is:
AGRYLIN Capsules are indicated for the treatment of patients with thrombocythemia, secondary to myeloproliferative neoplasms, to reduce the elevated platelet count and the risk of thrombosis and to ameliorate associated symptoms including thrombo-hemorrhagic events
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended starting dosage of AGRYLIN is 0.5 mg four times daily or 1 mg twice daily.
The recommended starting dosage of AGRYLIN is 0.5 mg daily.
Continue the starting dose for at least one week and then titrate to reduce and maintain the platelet count below 600,000/μL, and ideally between 150,000/μL and 400,000/μL. The dose increment should not exceed 0.5 mg/day in any one week. Dosage should not exceed 10 mg/day or 2.5 mg in a single dose. Most patients will experience an adequate response at a dose of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/day. Monitor platelet counts weekly during titration then monthly or as necessary.
Dose Modifications For Hepatic Impairment
In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh score 7-9) start AGRYLIN therapy at a dose of 0.5 mg/day and monitor frequently for cardiovascular events. Patients with moderate hepatic impairment who have tolerated AGRYLIN therapy for one week may have their dose increased. The dose increase increment should not exceed 0.5 mg/day in any one week. Avoid use of AGRYLIN in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
AGRYLIN therapy requires clinical monitoring, including complete blood counts, assessment of hepatic and renal function, and electrolytes.
To prevent the occurrence of thrombocytopenia, monitor platelet counts every two days during the first week of treatment and at least weekly thereafter until the maintenance dosage is reached. Typically, platelet counts begin to respond within 7 to 14 days at the proper dosage. In the clinical trials, the time to complete response, defined as platelet count ≤ 600,000/μL, ranged from 4 to 12 weeks. In the event of dosage interruption or treatment withdrawal, the rebound in platelet count is variable, but platelet counts typically will start to rise within 4 days and return to baseline levels in one to two weeks, possibly rebounding above baseline values. Monitor platelet counts frequently.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
White, opaque capsule, containing 0.5 mg anagrelide (as anagrelide hydrochloride), imprinted with “063” in black ink.
Storage And Handling
AGRYLIN is available as 0.5 mg, opaque, white capsules imprinted “063” in black ink: NDC 54092-063-01 = bottle of 100
Store at 25°C (77°F) excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F). Store in a light resistant container.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Toxicity
- Bleeding Risk
- Pulmonary Toxicity
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Studies in Adult Patients
In three single-arm clinical studies, 942 patients diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms of varying etiology (ET: 551; PV: 117; OMPN: 274) were exposed to anagrelide with a mean duration of approximately 65 weeks. Serious adverse reactions reported in these patients included the following: congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, cardiomegaly, complete heart block, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and pancreatitis. Of the 942 patients treated with anagrelide, 161 (17%) were discontinued from the study because of adverse reactions or abnormal laboratory test results. The most common adverse reactions for treatment discontinuation were headache, diarrhea, edema, palpitations, and abdominal pain.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions to anagrelide (in 5% or greater of 942 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms) in clinical trials were listed in Table 1.
Table 1 : Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Studies in at least 5% of Patients
|General disorders and administration site conditions
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
|Nervous system disorders
Adverse Reactions (frequency 1% to < 5%) included:
General disorders and administration site conditions: Flu symptoms, chills.
Cardiac disorders: Arrhythmia, angina pectoris, heart failure, syncope.
Vascular disorders: Hemorrhage, hypertension, postural hypotension, vasodilatation.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Constipation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastritis.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Anemia, thrombocytopenia, ecchymosis.
Hepatobiliary disorders: Elevated liver enzymes.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Arthralgia, myalgia.
Psychiatric disorders: Depression, confusion, nervousness.
Nervous system disorders: Somnolence, insomnia, amnesia, migraine headache.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Epistaxis, pneumonia.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Alopecia.
Eye disorders: Abnormal vision, diplopia.
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Tinnitus
Renal and urinary disorders: Hematuria, renal failure.
Other less frequent adverse reactions ( < 1%) were:
Cardiac disorders: Ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia.
Nervous system disorders: Hypoesthesia.
Clinical Study in Pediatric Patients
The frequency of adverse events observed in pediatric patients was similar to adult patients. The most common adverse events observed in pediatric patients were fever, epistaxis, headache, and fatigue during the 3-month anagrelide treatment in the study. Episodes of increased pulse and decreased systolic or diastolic blood pressure beyond the normal ranges in the absence of clinical symptoms were observed. Adverse events that had been reported in these pediatric patients prior to the study and were considered to be related to anagrelide treatment based on retrospective review were; palpitations, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, back pain, anorexia, fatigue, and muscle cramps.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-marketing use of AGRYLIN. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cases of torsades de pointes, interstitial lung diseases (including allergic alveolitis, eosinophilic pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis), tubulointerstitial nephritis and clinically significant hepatotoxicity (including symptomatic ALT and AST elevations and elevations greater than three times the ULN) have been reported.
Other adverse events in pediatric patients reported in spontaneous reports and literature reviews include anemia, cutaneous photosensitivity and elevated leukocyte count.
Drugs That Prolong QT
Do not use AGRYLIN in patients taking medications that may prolong QT interval (including, but not limited to, chloroquine, clarithromycin, haloperidol, methadone, moxifloxacin, amiodarone, disopyramide, procainamide and pimozide).
Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor. The effects of drug products with similar properties such as inotropes and other PDE3 inhibitors (e.g., cilostazol, milrinone) should be avoided.
Aspirin And Drugs That Increase Bleeding Risk
Co-administration of single-dose or repeat-dose anagrelide and aspirin showed greater ex vivo anti-platelet aggregation effects than administration of aspirin alone. Results from an observational study in patients with essential thrombocythemia suggest the rate of major hemorrhagic events (MHEs) in patients treated with anagrelide is higher than in those subjects treated with another cytoreductive treatment. The majority of the major hemorrhagic events occurred in patients who were also receiving concomitant anti-aggregatory treatment (primarily, aspirin). Therefore, the potential risks of the concomitant use of anagrelide with aspirin should be assessed, particularly in patients with a high risk profile for hemorrhage, before treatment is initiated.
Monitor patients for bleeding, particularly those receiving concomitant therapy with other drugs known to cause bleeding (e.g., anticoagulants, PDE3 inhibitors, NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
Anagrelide and its active metabolite are primarily metabolized by CYP1A2. Drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 (e.g., fluvoxamine, ciprofloxacin) could increase the exposure of anagrelide. Monitor patients for cardiovascular events and titrate doses accordingly when CYP1A2 inhibitors are co-administered.
CYP1A2 inducers could decrease the exposure of anagrelide. Patients taking concomitant CYP1A2 inducers (e.g., omeprazole) may need to have their dose titrated to compensate for the decrease in anagrelide exposure.
Anagrelide demonstrates limited inhibitory activity towards CYP1A2 in vitro and may alter the exposure of concomitant CYP1A2 substrates (e.g. theophylline, fluvoxamine, ondansetron).
Torsades de pointes and ventricular tachycardia have been reported with anagrelide. Obtain a pre-treatment cardiovascular examination including an ECG in all patients. During treatment with AGRYLIN monitor patients for cardiovascular effects and evaluate as necessary.
Anagrelide increases the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram and increases the heart rate in healthy volunteers.
Do not use AGRYLIN in patients with known risk factors for QT interval prolongation, such as congenital long QT syndrome, a known history of acquired QTc prolongation, medicinal products that can prolong QTc interval and hypokalemia.
Hepatic impairment increases anagrelide exposure and could increase the risk of QTc prolongation. Monitor patients with hepatic impairment for QTc prolongation and other cardiovascular adverse reactions. The potential risks and benefits of anagrelide therapy in a patient with mild and moderate hepatic impairment should be assessed before treatment is commenced. Reduce AGRYLIN dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Use of AGRYLIN in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied.
In patients with heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, or electrolyte abnormalities, consider periodic monitoring with electrocardiograms.
Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor and may cause vasodilation, tachycardia, palpitations, and congestive heart failure. Other drugs that inhibit PDE3 have caused decreased survival when compared with placebo in patients with Class III-IV congestive heart failure.
In patients with cardiac disease, use AGRYLIN only when the benefits outweigh the risks.
Use of concomitant anagrelide and aspirin increased major hemorrhagic events in a postmarketing study. Assess the potential risks and benefits for concomitant use of anagrelide with aspirin, since bleeding risks may be increased. Monitor patients for bleeding, including those receiving concomitant therapy with other drugs known to cause bleeding (e.g., anticoagulants, PDE3 inhibitors, NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
Interstitial lung diseases (including allergic alveolitis, eosinophilic pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis) have been reported to be associated with the use of anagrelide in post-marketing reports. Most cases presented with progressive dyspnea with lung infiltrations. The time of onset ranged from 1 week to several years after initiating anagrelide. If suspected, discontinue AGRYLIN and evaluate. Symptoms may improve after discontinuation.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In a two year rat carcinogenicity study a higher incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma, relative to controls, was observed in females receiving 30 mg/kg/day (at least 174 times human AUC exposure after a 1mg twice daily dose). Adrenal phaeochromocytomas were increased relative to controls in males receiving 3 mg/kg/day and above, and in females receiving 10 mg/kg/day and above (at least 10 and 18 times respectively human AUC exposure after a 1 mg twice daily dose).
Anagrelide hydrochloride was not mutagenic in the bacterial mutagenesis (Ames) assay or the mouse lymphoma cell (L5178Y, TK+/-) forward mutation assay, and was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes or the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
Anagrelide hydrochloride at oral doses up to 240 mg/kg/day (233 times the recommended human dose of 10 mg/day based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive function of male rats. However, in fertility studies in female rats, oral doses of 30 mg/kg/day (29 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) or higher resulted in increased pre-and post-implantation loss and a decrease in the number of live embryos.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with AGRYLIN in pregnant women. In animal embryo-fetal studies, delayed development (delayed skeletal ossification and reduced body weight) was observed in rats administered anagrelide hydrochloride during organogenesis at doses substantially higher than the maximum clinical dose of 10 mg/day. AGRYLIN should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Anagrelide hydrochloride was administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 900 mg/kg/day in rats and up to 20 mg/kg/day in rabbits (875 and 39 times, respectively, the maximum clinical dose of 10 mg/day based on body surface area). In rats, developmental delays were observed including reductions in fetal weight at 300 and 900 mg/kg/day and delays in skeletal ossification at doses of 100 mg/kg/day and higher. The dose of 100 mg/kg/day (600 mg/m²/day) in rats is approximately 97 times the maximum clinical dose based on body surface area. No adverse embryo-fetal effects were detected in rabbits at the highest dose of 20 mg/kg/day (39 times the maximal clinical dose based on body surface area).
In a pre-and post-natal study conducted in female rats, anagrelide hydrochloride at oral doses of 60 mg/kg/day (58 times the maximum clinical dose based on body surface area) or higher produced delay or blockage of parturition, deaths of non-delivering pregnant dams and their fully developed fetuses, and increased mortality in the pups born.
In a placental transfer study, a single oral dose of [14C]-anagrelide hydrochloride was administered to pregnant rats on gestation Day 17. Drug-related radioactivity was detected in maternal and fetal tissue.
It is not known whether anagrelide is excreted in human milk. Anagrelide or its metabolites have been detected in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted into human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reaction in nursing infants from anagrelide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
In a rat milk secretion study, a single oral dose of [14C]-anagrelide hydrochloride was administered to lactating female rats on postnatal Day 10. Drug-related radioactivity was detected in the maternal milk and blood.
Experience with AGRYLIN in pediatric patients was based on an open label safety and PK/PD study conducted in 18 pediatric patients aged 7-16 years with thrombocythemia secondary to ET.
There were no apparent trends or differences in the types of adverse events observed between the pediatric patients compared with those of the adult patients.
Of the 942 subjects in clinical studies of AGRYLIN, 42.1% were 65 years and over, while 14.9% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Hepatic metabolism is the major route of anagrelide clearance. Exposure to anagrelide is increased 8-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment and dose reduction is required. Use of AGRYLIN in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied. The potential risks and benefits of anagrelide therapy in a patient with mild and moderate hepatic impairment should be assessed before treatment is commenced. Assess hepatic function before and during anagrelide treatment.
At higher than recommended doses, this medicine has been shown to cause hypotension. There have been postmarketing case reports of intentional overdose with anagrelide hydrochloride. Reported symptoms include sinus tachycardia and vomiting. Symptoms resolved with supportive management. Platelet reduction from anagrelide therapy is dose-related; therefore, thrombocytopenia, which can potentially cause bleeding, is expected from overdosage.
In case of overdosage, close clinical supervision of the patient is required; this especially includes monitoring of the platelet count for thrombocytopenia. Dosage should be stopped, as appropriate, until the platelet count returns to within the normal range.