Aloxi Capsules information, interactions and side effects, ALOXI (palonosetron HCl) Capsules is an antiemetic and antinauseant agent. It is a serotonin subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist with a strong binding affinity for this receptor. Chemically, palonosetron hydrochloride is: (3aS)-2-[(S)-1-Azabicyclo [2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1-oxo-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline hydrochloride. The empirical formula is C19H24N2O.HCl, with a molecular weight of 332.87. Palonosetron hydrochloride exists as a single isomer and has the following structural formula:
Palonosetron hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in propylene glycol, and slightly soluble in ethanol and 2-propanol.
Each light beige opaque soft gelatin ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) Capsule contains 0.56 mg of palonosetron HCl equivalent to palonosetron 0.5 mg. Inactive ingredients are: mono- and di-glycerides of capryl/capric acid, glycerin, polyglyceryl oleate, water, and butylated hydroxyanisole.
Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting
ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) Capsules are indicated for:
- Moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy – prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Dosage for Adults – one 0.5 mg capsule administered approximately one hour prior to the start of chemotherapy. ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) can be taken with or without food.
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Capsules, 0.5 mg
NDC #62856-799-05, ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) Capsules, 0.5 mg (free base), are supplied as light beige opaque soft gelatin capsules, five capsules per bottle, each bottle packaged in a small carton.
- Store at 25ºC (77ºF); excursions permitted to 15º to 30ºC (59º to 86ºF).
- Protect from light.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In clinical trials for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, 693 adult patients received oral palonosetron in doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 0.75 mg. Following is a listing of drug related adverse reactions reported by ≥ 2% of patients from two clinical trials.
Table 1: Adverse Reactions ≥ 2% from Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Studies
|0.25 mg I.V.
The infrequently reported adverse reactions listed below, assessed by investigators as treatment-related or causality unknown/missing, occurred following administration of ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) Capsules to adult patients receiving concomitant cancer chemotherapy. Of these adverse events, fatigue (incidence 1%), was the only adverse event reported at an incidence of ≥ 1%. In general, adverse reactions were similar between oral and I.V. formulations.
Blood and Lymphatic System: <1%: anemia.
Cardiovascular: <1%: hypertension, transient arrhythmia, first degree atrioventricular block, second degree atrioventricular block, QTc prolongation.
Hearing and Labyrinth: <1%: motion sickness.
Eye: <1%: eye swelling.
Gastrointestinal System: <1%: gastritis, nausea, vomiting.
General: 1%: fatigue, <1%: chills, pyrexia.
Infections: <1%: sinusitis.
Liver: <1%: transient, asymptomatic increases in bilirubin.
Nutrition: <1%: anorexia.
Musculoskeletal: <1%: joint stiffness, myalgia, pain in extremity.
Nervous System: <1%: postural dizziness, dysgeusia.
Psychiatric: <1%: insomnia.
Respiratory System: <1%: dyspnea, epistaxis.
Skin: <1%: generalized pruritus, erythema, alopecia.
Very rare cases (<1/10,000) of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported for I.V. ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) from post-marketing experience.
Palonosetron is eliminated from the body through both renal excretion and metabolic pathways with the latter mediated via multiple CYP enzymes. Further in vitro studies indicated that palonosetron is not an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4/5 (CYP2C19 was not investigated) nor does it induce the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5. Therefore, the potential for clinically significant drug interactions with palonosetron appears to be low.
A study in healthy volunteers involving single-dose I.V. palonosetron (0.75 mg) and steady state oral metoclopramide (10 mg four times daily) demonstrated no significant pharmacokinetic interaction.
Concomitant administration of an antacid (Maalox® liquid 30 mL) had no effect on the oral absorption or pharmacokinetics of a single capsule of palonosetron 0.75 mg in healthy subjects.
In controlled clinical trials, ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) Capsules have been safely administered with chemotherapeutic agents, systemic corticosteroids, analgesics, and drugs for gastrointestinal disorders including function gastrointestinal disorders, acid-related disorders, and antiemetics/antinauseants.
Palonosetron did not inhibit the antitumor activity of the five chemotherapeutic agents tested (cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, doxorubicin and mitomycin C) in murine tumor models.
Hypersensitivity reactions may occur in patients who have exhibited hypersensitivity to other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Hypersensitivity reactions have been very rarely reported postmarketing for intravenous palonosetron: dyspnea, bronchospasm, swelling/edema, erythema, pruritus, rash, urticaria. No hypersensitivity reactions have been reported for oral palonosetron.
Patient Counseling Information
Instructions for Patients
- Patients should be instructed to read the patient insert.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in CD-1 mice, animals were treated with oral doses of palonosetron at 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day. Treatment with palonosetron was not tumorigenic. The highest tested dose produced a systemic exposure to palonosetron (Plasma AUC) of about 90 to 173 times the human exposure (AUC= 49.7 ng·h/mL) at the recommended oral dose of 0.5 mg. In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats, male and female rats were treated with oral doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day and 15, 45 and 90 mg/kg/day, respectively. The highest doses produced a systemic exposure to palonosetron (Plasma AUC) of 82 and 185 times the human exposure at the recommended dose. Treatment with palonosetron produced increased incidences of adrenal benign pheochromocytoma and combined benign and malignant pheochromocytoma, increased incidences of pancreatic Islet cell adenoma and combined adenoma and carcinoma and pituitary adenoma in male rats. In female rats, it produced hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma and increased the incidences of thyroid C-cell adenoma and combined adenoma and carcinoma.
Palonosetron was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the Chinese hamster ovarian cell (CHO/HGPRT) forward mutation test, the ex vivo hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test or the mouse micronucleus test. It was, however, positive for clastogenic effects in the Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cell chromosomal aberration test.
Palonosetron at oral doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (about 921 times the recommended human oral dose based on body surface area) was found to have no effect on fertility and reproductive performance of male and female rats.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at oral doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (921 times the recommended human oral dose based on body surface area) and rabbits at oral doses up to 60 mg/kg/day (1841 times the recommended human oral dose based on body surface area) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to palonosetron. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, palonosetron should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Palonosetron has not been administered to patients undergoing labor and delivery, so its effects on the mother or child are unknown.
It is not known whether palonosetron is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants and the potential for tumorigenicity shown for palonosetron in the rat carcinogenicity study, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established.
Of the total number of adult cancer patients in a pivotal study of oral palonosetron, 181 were 65 years of age and over. The number of geriatric patients receiving 0.5 mg palonosetron was insufficient to draw any efficacy or safety conclusions.
In a cross-study comparison, after a single oral dose (0.75 mg) the systemic exposure of palonosetron (AUC) was similar, but mean Cmax was 15% lower in healthy elderly subjects 65 years of age compared with the subjects < 65 years of age. No dose adjustment is required for geriatric patients.
Mild to moderate renal impairment does not significantly affect palonosetron pharmacokinetic parameters. Total systemic exposure to intravenous ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) increased by approximately 28% in severe renal impairment relative to healthy subjects. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in patients with mild to severe renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of palonosetron have not been studied in subjects with end-stage renal disease.
Hepatic impairment does not significantly affect total body clearance of intravenous palonosetron compared to the healthy subjects. Dosage adjustment is not necessary in patients with any degree of hepatic impairment.
Oral pharmacokinetics of palonosetron were characterized in thirty-two healthy Japanese male subjects using solution over the dose range of 3-90 µg/kg. The apparent total body clear ance was 26% higher in Japanese males than in white males based on a cross-study comparison; however, no dose adjustment is necessary. The pharmacokinetics of palonosetron in other races have not been adequately characterized.
Although a single dose of 0.5 mg ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) Capsule was associated with a 2635% higher systemic exposure in female subjects than in male subjects, dosage adjustment is not necessary based on gender.
There is no known antidote to ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) . Overdose should be managed with supportive care.
Thirty-three adult cancer patients were administered oral palonosetron at a dose of 90 µg/kg (equivalent to 6 mg fixed dose) as part of a dose ranging study. This is approximately 12 times the recommended oral dose of 0.5 mg. This dose group had a similar incidence of adverse events compared to the other dose groups and no dose response effects were observed.
Dialysis studies have not been performed, however, due to the large volume of distribution, dialysis is unlikely to be an effective treatment for palonosetron overdose. A single oral dose of palonosetron at 500 mg/kg in rats and 100 mg/kg in dogs (7673 and 5115 times the recommended human oral dose, respectively, based on body surface area) was lethal. The major signs of toxicity included convulsions, labored breathing, and salivation.
ALOXI (palonosetron hcl capsules) is contraindicated in patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its components.