Aptivus information, interactions and side effects, APTIVUS is a protease inhibitor of HIV-1 belonging to the class of 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone sulfonamides.
The chemical name of tipranavir is 2-Pyridinesulfonamide, N-[3-[(1R)-1-[(6R)-5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-6-(2-phenylethyl)-6-propyl-2H-pyran-3-yl]propyl]phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl). It has a molecular formula of C31H33F3N2O5S and a molecular weight of 602.7. Tipranavir has the following structural formula and is a single stereoisomer with the 1R, 6R configuration.
Tipranavir is a white to off-white to slightly yellow solid. It is freely soluble in dehydrated alcohol and propylene glycol, and insoluble in aqueous buffer at pH 7.5.
APTIVUS soft gelatin capsules are for oral administration. Each capsule contains 250 mg tipranavir. The major inactive ingredients in the capsule are dehydrated alcohol (7% w/w or 0.1 g per capsule), polyoxyl 35 castor oil, propylene glycol, mono/diglycerides of caprylic/capric acid and gelatin.
APTIVUS oral solution is available in a strength of 100 mg/mL of tipranavir. APTIVUS oral solution is a yellow, viscous clear liquid with a buttermint-butter toffee flavor. The major inactive ingredients in the oral solution are polyethylene glycol 400, vitamin E polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), purified water, and propylene glycol. Each milliliter of APTIVUS oral solution contains 116 IU of vitamin E, and when taken at the recommended maximum dose of 500 mg/200 mg tipranavir/ritonavir BID results in a daily dose of 1160 IU.
APTIVUS, co-administered with ritonavir, is indicated for combination antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infected patients who are treatment-experienced and infected with HIV-1 strains resistant to more than one protease inhibitor (PI).
This indication is based on analyses of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in two controlled studies of APTIVUS/ritonavir of 48 weeks duration in treatment-experienced adults and one open-label 48-week study in pediatric patients age 2 to 18 years. The adult studies were conducted in clinically advanced, 3-class antiretroviral (NRTI, NNRTI, PI) treatment-experienced adults with evidence of HIV-1 replication despite ongoing antiretroviral therapy.
The following points should be considered when initiating therapy with APTIVUS/ritonavir:
- The use of APTIVUS/ritonavir in treatment-naïve patients is not recommended [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- The use of other active agents with APTIVUS/ritonavir is associated with a greater likelihood of treatment response [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies].
- Genotypic or phenotypic testing and/or treatment history should guide the use of APTIVUS/ritonavir [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The number of baseline primary protease inhibitor mutations affects the virologic response to APTIVUS/ritonavir [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
- Use caution when prescribing APTIVUS/ritonavir to patients with elevated transaminases, hepatitis B or C co-infection or patients with mild hepatic impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Liver function tests should be performed at initiation of therapy with APTIVUS/ritonavir and monitored frequently throughout the duration of treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- The drug-drug interaction potential of APTIVUS/ritonavir when co-administered with other drugs must be considered prior to and during APTIVUS/ritonavir use [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- Use caution when prescribing APTIVUS/ritonavir in patients who may be at risk for increased bleeding or who are receiving medications known to increase the risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- The risk-benefit of APTIVUS/ritonavir has not been established in pediatric patients < 2 years of age.
There are no study results demonstrating the effect of APTIVUS/ritonavir on clinical progression of HIV-1.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
APTIVUS must be co-administered with ritonavir to exert its therapeutic effect. Failure to correctly co-administer APTIVUS with ritonavir will result in plasma levels of tipranavir that will be insufficient to achieve the desired antiviral effect and will alter some drug interactions.
- APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir capsules or solution can be taken with or without meals
- APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir tablets must only be taken with meals [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
APTIVUS may be administered as either capsules or oral solution to either pediatric or adult patients.
Due to the need for co-administration of APTIVUS with ritonavir, please refer to the ritonavir prescribing information.
The recommended adult dose of APTIVUS is 500 mg (two 250 mg capsules or 5 mL oral solution) co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir, twice daily.
Pediatric Patients (Age 2 to 18 Years)
Healthcare professionals should pay special attention to accurate calculation of the dose of APTIVUS, transcription of the medication order, dispensing information and dosing instruction to minimize risk for medication errors, overdose, and underdose.
Prescribers should calculate the appropriate dose of APTIVUS for each individual child based on body weight (kg) or body surface area (BSA, m²) and should not exceed the recommended adult dose.
Before prescribing APTIVUS 250 mg capsules, children should be assessed for the ability to swallow capsules. If a child is unable to reliably swallow an APTIVUS capsule, the APTIVUS oral solution formulation should be prescribed.
The recommended pediatric dose of APTIVUS is 14 mg/kg with 6 mg/kg ritonavir (or 375 mg/m² co-administered with ritonavir 150 mg/m²) taken twice daily not to exceed a maximum dose of APTIVUS 500 mg co-administered with ritonavir 200 mg twice daily. For children who develop intolerance or toxicity and cannot continue with APTIVUS 14 mg/kg with 6 mg/kg ritonavir, physicians may consider decreasing the dose to APTIVUS 12 mg/kg with 5 mg/kg ritonavir (or APTIVUS 290 mg/m² co-administered with 115 mg/m² ritonavir) taken twice daily provided their virus is not resistant to multiple protease inhibitors [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Use in Specific Populations, and Clinical Studies].
Body surface area can be calculated as follows:
Mosteller Formula: BSA (m²) = √Height (cm)x Wt (kg)/3600
Dosage Forms And Strengths
Capsules: 250 mg, pink, oblong capsules imprinted with TPV 250
Oral solution: 100 mg/mL, yellow, viscous clear liquid with a buttermint-butter toffee flavor
Storage And Handling
APTIVUS capsules 250 mg are pink, oblong soft gelatin capsules imprinted in black with “TPV 250”. They are packaged in HDPE unit-of-use bottles with a child resistant closure and 120 capsules. (NDC 0597-0003-02)
APTIVUS oral solution is a clear yellow viscous buttermint-butter toffee flavored liquid containing 100 mg tipranavir in each mL. The solution is supplied in a unit-ofuse amber glass bottle providing 95 mL of solution with a child resistant closure. A 5 mL plastic oral dispensing syringe is also provided. (NDC 0597-0002-01).
APTIVUS capsules should be stored in a refrigerator 2°-8°C (36°-46°F) prior to opening the bottle. After opening the bottle, the capsules may be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F) and must be used within 60 days after first opening the bottle.
APTIVUS oral solution should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Do not refrigerate or freeze. The solution must be used within 60 days after first opening the bottle.
Store in a safe place out of the reach of children.
The following adverse reactions are described, in greater detail, in other sections:
- Hepatic Impairment and Toxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Intracranial Hemorrhage [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Rash [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Due to the need for co-administration of APTIVUS with ritonavir, please refer to ritonavir prescribing information for ritonavir-associated adverse reactions.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Clinical Trials In Adults
APTIVUS, co-administered with ritonavir, has been studied in a total of 6308 HIV-1 positive adults as combination therapy in clinical studies. Of these, 1299 treatment-experienced patients received the dose of 500/200 mg BID. Nine hundred nine (909) adults, including 541 in the 1182.12 and 1182.48 controlled clinical trials, have been treated for at least 48 weeks [see Clinical Studies].
In 1182.12 and 1182.48 in the APTIVUS/ritonavir arm, the most frequent adverse reactions were diarrhea, nausea, pyrexia, vomiting, fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain. The 48-Week Kaplan-Meier rates of adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were 13.3% for APTIVUS/ritonavir-treated patients and 10.8% for the comparator arm patients.
Adverse reactions reported in the controlled clinical trials 1182.12 and 1182.48, based on treatment-emergent clinical adverse reactions of moderate to severe intensity (Grades 2 – 4) in at least 2% of treatment-experienced subjects in either treatment group are summarized in Table 2 below.
Table 2 : Adverse Reactions Reported in Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials (1182.12 and 1182.48) Based on Treatment-Emergent Clinical Adverse Reactions of Moderate to Severe Intensity (Grades 2 – 4) in at least 2% of Treatment-Experienced Subjects in either Treatment Groupa (48-week Analyses)
||APTIVUS/ritonavir (500/200 mg BID) + OBRc
(n=749; 757.4 patient-exposure years)
|Comparator PI/ritonavirb + OBR
(n=737; 503.9 patient-exposure years)
|Blood and Lymphatic Disorders
| Abdominal pain
| Abdominal pain upper
| Weight decreased
| ALT increased
| GGT increased
|Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
|Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
|Nervous System Disorders
| Peripheral neuropathy
|Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
|aExcludes laboratory abnormalities that were Adverse Events
bComparator PI/ritonavir: lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, indinavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg BID, saquinavir/ritonavir 1000/100 mg BID, amprenavir/ritonavir 600/100 mg BID
cOptimized Background Regimen
Less Common Adverse Reactions
Other adverse reactions reported in < 2% of adult patients (n=1474) treated with APTIVUS/ritonavir 500/200 mg in Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials are listed below by body system:
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: thrombocytopenia
Gastrointestinal Disorders: abdominal distension, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pancreatitis
General Disorders: influenza-like illness, malaise
Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatitis, hepatic failure, hyperbilirubinemia, cytolytic hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, hepatic steatosis
Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity
Investigations: hepatic enzymes increased, liver function test abnormal, lipase increased
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: anorexia, decreased appetite, diabetes mellitus, facial wasting, hyperamylasemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, mitochondrial toxicity
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: muscle cramp
Nervous System Disorders: dizziness, intracranial hemorrhage, somnolence
Psychiatric Disorders: sleep disorder
Renal and Urinary Disorders: renal insufficiency
Skin and Subcutaneous System Disorders: exanthem, lipoatrophy, lipodystrophy acquired, lipohypertrophy, pruritus
Treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities reported at 48 weeks in the controlled clinical trials 1182.12 and 1182.48 in adults are summarized in Table 3 below.
Table 3 : Treatment-Emergent Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in ≥ 2% of Adult Patients (48-week Analyses)
||Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials 1182.12 and 1182.48
|Percentage of Patients (rate per 100 patient-exposure years)
||APTIVUS/ ritonavir (500/200 mgBID) + OBR
|Comparator PI/ritonavir + OBR*
|WBC count decrease
||< 2.0 x 103/μL
||< 1.0 x 103/μL
||> 2.5 x ULN
||> 5 x ULN
||> 2.5-5 x ULN
||> 5-10 x ULN
||> 10 x ULN
||> 2.5-5 x ULN
||> 5-10 x ULN
||> 10 x ULN
|ALT and/or AST
||> 2.5 x ULN
||> 300 – 400 mg/dL
||> 400 – 500 mg/dL
||> 500 mg/dL
||400 – 750 mg/dL
||> 750 – 1200 mg/dL
||> 1200 mg/dL
|*Comparator PI/ritonavir: lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, indinavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg BID, saquinavir/ritonavir 1000/100 mg BID, amprenavir/ritonavir 600/100 mg BID
In controlled clinical trials 1182.12 and 1182.48 extending up to 96 weeks, the proportion of patients who developed Grade 2-4 ALT and/or AST elevations increased from 26% at week 48 to 32.1% at week 96 with APTIVUS/ritonavir. The risk of developing transaminase elevations is greater during the first year of therapy.
Clinical Trials In Pediatric Patients
APTIVUS, co-administered with ritonavir, has been studied in a total of 135 HIV-1 infected pediatric patients age 2 through 18 years as combination therapy. This study enrolled HIV-1 infected, treatment-experienced pediatric patients (with the exception of 3 treatment-naïve patients), with baseline HIV-1 RNA of at least 1500 copies/mL. One hundred and ten (110) patients were enrolled in a randomized, open-label 48-week clinical trial (Study 1182.14) and 25 patients were enrolled in other clinical studies including Expanded Access and Emergency Use Programs.
The adverse reactions profile seen in Study 1182.14 was similar to adults. Pyrexia (6.4%), vomiting (5.5%), cough (5.5%), rash (5.5%), nausea (4.5%), and diarrhea (3.6%) were the most frequently reported adverse reactions (Grade 2-4, all causes) in pediatric patients. Rash was reported more frequently in pediatric patients than in adults.
The most common Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities were increases in CPK (11%), ALT (6.5%), and amylase (7.5%).
Due to previous reports of both fatal and non-fatal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), an analysis of bleeding events was performed. At 48 weeks of treatment, the frequency of pediatric patients with any bleeding adverse reactions was 7.5%. No drug related serious bleeding adverse reaction was reported. The most frequent bleeding adverse reaction was epistaxis (3.7%). No other bleeding adverse reaction was reported in frequency of > 1%. Additional trial follow-up through 100 weeks showed a cumulative 12% frequency of any bleeding adverse reaction.
See also CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.
Potential For APTIVUS/ritonavir To Affect Other Drugs
APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir at the recommended dose is a net inhibitor of CYP 3A and may increase plasma concentrations of agents that are primarily metabolized by CYP 3A. Thus, co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir with drugs highly dependent on CYP 3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening events is contraindicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Co-administration with other CYP 3A substrates may require a dose adjustment or additional monitoring.
Clinically significant drug-drug interactions of APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir are summarized in Table 4 below.
A phenotypic cocktail study was conducted with 16 healthy volunteers to quantify the influence of 10 days of APTIVUS/ritonavir capsule administration on the activity of hepatic CYP 1A2 (caffeine), 2C9 (warfarin), 2C19 (omeprazole), 2D6 (dextromethorphan) and the activity of intestinal and hepatic CYP 3A4/5 (midazolam) and Pglycoprotein (P-gp) (digoxin). This study determined the first-dose and steady-state effects of 500 mg of APTIVUS co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir twice daily in capsule form. APTIVUS oral solution co-administered with ritonavir capsules demonstrated similar effects as APTIVUS capsules co-administrated with ritonavir.
There was no net effect on CYP 2C9 or hepatic P-gp at first dose or steady state. There was no net effect after first dose on CYP 1A2, but there was moderate induction at steady state. There was modest inhibition of CYP 2C19 at the first dose, but there was marked induction at steady state. Potent inhibition of CYP 2D6 and both hepatic and intestinal CYP 3A4/5 activities were observed after first dose and steady state.
Intestinal and hepatic P-gp activity was assessed by administering oral and intravenous digoxin, respectively. The digoxin results indicate P-gp was inhibited after the first dose of APTIVUS/ritonavir followed by induction of P-gp over time. Thus, it is difficult to predict the net effect of APTIVUS administered with ritonavir on oral bioavailability and plasma concentrations of drugs that are dual substrates of CYP 3A and P-gp. The net effect will vary depending on the relative affinity of the coadministered drugs for CYP 3A and P-gp, and the extent of intestinal first-pass metabolism/efflux. An in vitro induction study in human hepatocytes showed an increase in UGT1A1 by tipranavir similar to that evoked by rifampin. The clinical consequences of this finding have not been established.
Potential For Other Drugs To Affect Tipranavir
Tipranavir is a CYP 3A substrate and a P-gp substrate. Co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir and drugs that induce CYP 3A and/or P-gp may decrease tipranavir plasma concentrations. Co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir and drugs that inhibit P-gp may increase tipranavir plasma concentrations. Co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir with drugs that inhibit CYP 3A may not further increase tipranavir plasma concentrations, because the level of metabolites is low following steadystate administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir 500/200 mg twice daily.
Clinically significant drug-drug interactions of APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir are summarized in Table 4 below.
Table 4 : Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions: Alterations in Dose or Regimen May be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Studies or Predicted Interaction
|Concomitant Drug Class: Drug name
||Effect on Concentration of Tipranavir or Concomitant Drug
|HIV-1 Antiviral Agents
|Fusion Inhibitors: Enfuvirtide
||At steady state, tipranavir trough concentrations were approximately 45% higher in patients co-administered enfuvirtide in the Phase 3 trials. The mechanism for this increase is not known. Dose adjustments are not recommended.
|Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors:
||APTIVUS/ritonavir when coadministered with etravirine may cause a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of etravirine and loss of therapeutic effect of etravirine. Etravirine and APTIVUS/ritonavir should not be coadministered.
||The use of rilpivirine co-administered with APTIVUS/ritonavir has not been studied.
||Concomitant use of rilpivirine with Aptivus/ritonavir may cause an increase in the plasma concentrations of rilpivirine (inhibition of CYP3A enzymes). Rilpivirine is not expected to affect the plasma concentrations of Aptivus/ritonavir.
|Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors:
||↓ Abacavir AUC by approximately 40%
||Clinical relevance of reduction in abacavir levels not established. Dose adjustment of abacavir cannot be recommended at this time.
||Clinical relevance of reduction in didanosine levels not established. For optimal absorption, didanosine should be separated from APTIVUS/ritonavir dosing by at least 2 hours.
||↓ Zidovudine AUC by approximately 35%. ZDV glucuronide concentrations were unaltered.
||Clinical relevance of reduction in zidovudine levels not established. Dose adjustment of zidovudine cannot be recommended at this time.
|Protease Inhibitors (co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir):
|Combining a protease inhibitor with APTIVUS/ritonavir is not recommended.
|Protease Inhibitors (co-administered with 100 mg of ritonavir):
|Virus Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors:
||APTIVUS/ritonavir reduces plasma concentrations of raltegravir. Since comparable efficacy was observed for this combination in phase 3 studies, dose adjustment is not recommended.
|Agents for Opportunistic Infections
↑ Itraconazole (not studied)
↑ Ketoconazole (not studied)
↕ Voriconazole (not studied)
|Fluconazole increases tipranavir concentrations but dose adjustments are not needed. Fluconazole doses > 200 mg/day are not recommended.
Based on theoretical considerations itraconazole and ketoconazole should be used with caution. High doses ( > 200 mg/day) are not recommended.
Due to multiple enzymes involved with voriconazole metabolism, it is difficult to predict the interaction.
||↑ Tipranavir, ↑ Clarithromycin,
↓ 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin metabolite
|No dose adjustment of APTIVUS or clarithromycin for patients with normal renal function is necessary. For patients with renal impairment the following dosage adjustments should be considered:
- For patients with CLcr 30 to 60 mL/min the dose of clarithromycin should be reduced by 50%.
- For patients with CLcr < 30 mL/min the dose of clarithromycin should be decreased by 75%.
||Tipranavir not changed, ↑Rifabutin
|Single dose study. Dosage reductions of rifabutin by 75% are recommended (e.g., 150 mg every other day). Increased monitoring for adverse events in patients receiving the combination is warranted. Further dosage reduction may be necessary.
|Other Agents Commonly Used
||Caution should be used when prescribing carbamazepine, phenobarbital and/or phenytoin. APTIVUS may be less effective due to decreased tipranavir plasma concentration in patients taking these agents concomitantly.
||Caution should be used when prescribing valproic acid. Valproic acid may be less effective due to decreased valproic acid plasma concentration in patients taking APTIVUS concomitantly.
||Concomitant use of trazodone and APTIVUS/ritonavir may increase plasma concentrations of trazodone. Adverse events of nausea, dizziness, hypotension, and syncope have been observed following coadministration of trazodone and ritonavir. If trazodone is used with a CYP 3A4 inhibitor such as APTIVUS/ritonavir, the combination should be used with caution and a lower dose of trazodone should be considered.
||Combination with APTIVUS/ritonavir not studied ↑Desipramine
||Dosage reduction and concentration monitoring of desipramine is recommended.
|Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors:
||Combination with APTIVUS/ritonavir not studied
||Antidepressants have a wide therapeutic index, but doses may need to be adjusted upon initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy.
|Fluoxetine Paroxetine Sertraline
||Co-administration of APTIVUS and boceprevir has not been studied.
||With concomitant use, changes in exposure were observed both for boceprevir and certain protease inhibitors used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection or either medication. Information is not available regarding tipranavir or boceprevir exposure with concomitant use. It is not recommended to co-administer boceprevir with APTIVUS/ritonavir.
||Co-administration of APTIVUS and telaprevir has not been studied.
||With concomitant use, changes in exposure were observed both for telaprevir and certain protease inhibitors used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection or telaprevir. Information is not available regarding tipranavir or telaprevir exposure with concomitant use. It is not recommended to co-administer telaprevir with APTIVUS/ritonavir.
||In patients with renal or hepatic impairment, coadministration of colchicine in patients on APTIVUS/ritonavir is contraindicated. In combination with APTIVUS/ritonavir, the following dosage adjustments are recommended in patients with normal renal and hepatic function:
Treatment of eout flares: Co-administration of colchicine in patients on APTIVUS/ritonavir:
- 0.6 mg (1 tablet) x 1 dose, followed by 0.3 mg (half tablet) 1 hour later. Dose to be repeated no earlier than 3 days.
Prophylaxis of gout flares: Co-administration of colchicine in patients on APTIVUS/ritonavir:
- If the original colchicine regimen was 0.6 mg twice a day, the regimen should be adjusted to 0.3 mg once a day.
- If the original colchicine regimen was 0.6 mg once a day, the regimen should be adjusted to 0.3 mg once every other day.
Treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF): Co-administration of colchicine in patients on APTIVUS/ritonavir:
- Maximum daily dose of 0.6 mg (may be given as 0.3 mg twice a day).
||Initiation of APTIVUS with ritonavir in patients taking auetiapine:
Consider alternative antiretroviral therapy to avoid increases in quetiapine exposures. If coadministration is necessary, reduce the quetiapine dose to 1/6 of the current dose and monitor for quetiapine-associated adverse reactions. Refer to the quetiapine prescribing information for recommendations on adverse reaction monitoring.
Initiation of quetiapine in patients taking APTIVUS with ritonavir:
Refer to the quetiapine prescribing information for initial dosing and titration of quetiapine.
|Parenterally administered midazolam
||Midazolam is extensively metabolized by CYP 3A4. Increases in the concentration of midazolam are expected to be significantly higher with oral than parenteral administration. Therefore, APTIVUS should not be given with orally administered midazolam [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. If APTIVUS is co-administered with parenteral midazolam, close clinical monitoring for respiratory depression and/or prolonged sedation should be exercised and dosage adjustments should be considered.
|APTIVUS/ritonavir did not result in changes in the clinical efficacy of buprenorphine/naloxone. Compared to historical controls tipranavir Cmin was decreased approximately 40% with this combination. Dose adjustments cannot be recommended.
|Calcium Channel Blockers: Diltiazem
|Combination with APTIVUS/ritonavir not studied. Cannot predict effect of TPV/ritonavir on calcium channel blockers that are dual substrates of CYP3A and P-gp due to conflicting effect of TPV/ritonavir on CYP3A and P-gp.
↑ Felodipine (CYP3A substrate but not Pgp substrate)
↕ Nisoldipine (CYP3A substrate but not clear whether it is a P-gp substrate)
|Caution is warranted and clinical monitoring of patients is recommended.
||Combination with TPV/ritonavir not studied
||APTIVUS capsules contain alcohol that can produce disulfiram-like reactions when co-administered with disulfiram or other drugs which produce this reaction (e.g., metronidazole).
|Endothelin receptor antagonists
||Co-administration of bosentan in patients on APTIVUS/ritonavir:
In patients who have been receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir for at least 10 days, start bosentan at 62.5 mg once daily or every other day based upon individual tolerability.
Co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir in patients on bosentan:
Discontinue use of bosentan at least 36 hours prior to initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir.
After at least 10 days following the initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir, resume bosentan at 62.5 mg once daily or every other day based upon individual tolerability.
|HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors:
↓ Hydroxy-atorvastatin metabolites
|Avoid co-administration with atorvastatin.
|Combination with APTIVUS/ritonavir not studied ↔ Glimepiride (CYP 2C9)
↔ Glipizide (CYP 2C9)
↔ Glyburide (CYP 2C9)
↕ Pioglitazone (CYP 2C8 and CYP 3A4)
↕ Repaglinide (CYP 2C8 and CYP 3A4)
↔ Tolbutamide (CYP 2C9) The effect of TPV/ritonavir on CYP 2C8
substrate is not known.
|Careful glucose monitoring is warranted.
|Combination with APTIVUS/ritonavir not studied. Cannot predict effect of TPV/ritonavir on immunosuppressants due to conflicting effect of TPV/ritonavir on CYP 3A and P-gp. ↕ Cyclosporine
|Increased frequency of monitoring of plasma levels of immunosuppressant drugs is recommended.
|Inhaled beta agonist:
||Concurrent administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir is not recommended. The combination may result in increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with salmeterol, including QT prolongation, palpitations, and sinus tachycardia.
||Concomitant use of fluticasone propionate and APTIVUS/ritonavir may increase plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations. Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and APTIVUS/ritonavir is not recommended unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects.
||Combinations with APTIVUS/ritonavir not
↓ Meperidine, ↑ Normeperidine
|Dosage increase and long-term use of meperidine are not recommended due to increased concentrations of the metabolite normeperidine which has both analgesic activity and CNS stimulant activity (e.g., seizures).
↓ S-Methadone, ↓ R-Methadone
|Dosage of methadone may need to be increased when co-administered with APTIVUS and 200 mg of ritonavir.
||↓ Ethinyl estradiol concentrations by 50%
||Alternative methods of nonhormonal contraception should be used when estrogen based oral contraceptives are co-administered with APTIVUS and 200 mg of ritonavir. Patients using estrogens as hormone replacement therapy should be clinically monitored for signs of estrogen deficiency. Women using estrogens may have an increased risk of non-serious rash.
|Proton Pump Inhibitors:
||↓ Omeprazole, ↔ Tipranavir
||Dosage of omeprazole may need to be increased when co-administered with APTIVUS and ritonavir.
|Only the combination of tadalafil with APTIVUS/ritonavir has been studied (at doses used for treatment of erectile dysfunction).
↑ Sildenafil (not studied)
↑ Tadalafil with first dose
↔ Tadalafil at APTIVUS/ritonavir steadystate
↑ Vardenafil (not studied)
|Co-administration with APTIVUS/ritonavir may result in an increase in PDE-5 inhibitor-associated adverse events, including hypotension, syncope, visual disturbances, and priapism.
Use of PDE-5 inhibitors for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH):
- Use of sildenafil (Revatio) is contraindicated when used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- The following dose adjustments are recommended for use of tadalafil (Adcirca) with APTIVUS/ritonavir:
Co-administration of tadalafil (Adcirca) in patients on APTIVUS/ritonavir:
In patients receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir for at least one week, start Adcirca at 20 mg once daily. Increase to 40 mg once daily based upon individual tolerability.
Co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir in patients on tadalafil (Adcirca):
Avoid use of tadalafil (Adcirca) during the initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir. Stop Adcirca at least 24 hours prior to starting APTIVUS/ritonavir. After at least one week following the initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir, resume Adcirca at 20 mg once daily. Increase to 40 mg once daily based upon individual tolerability.
Use of PDE-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction:
Concomitant use of PDE-5 inhibitors with APTIVUS/ritonavir should be used with caution and in no case should the starting dose of:
- sildenafil exceed 25 mg within 48 hours
- tadalafil exceed 10 mg every 72 hours
- vardenafil exceed 2.5 mg every 72 hours Use with increased monitoring for adverse events.
||Frequent INR (international normalized ratio) monitoring upon initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy.
|↑ increase, ↓ decrease, ↔ no change, ↕ unable to predict
Please refer to the ritonavir prescribing information for additional information on precautionary measures.
Hepatic Impairment And Toxicity
Clinical hepatitis and hepatic decompensation, including some fatalities, were reported with APTIVUS co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir. These have generally occurred in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease taking multiple concomitant medications. A causal relationship to APTIVUS/ritonavir could not be established.
Physicians and patients should be vigilant for the appearance of signs or symptoms of hepatitis, such as fatigue, malaise, anorexia, nausea, jaundice, bilirubinuria, acholic stools, liver tenderness or hepatomegaly. Patients with signs or symptoms of clinical hepatitis should discontinue APTIVUS/ritonavir treatment and seek medical evaluation.
All patients should be followed closely with clinical and laboratory monitoring, especially those with chronic hepatitis B or C co-infection, as these patients have an increased risk of hepatotoxicity. Liver function tests should be performed prior to initiating therapy with APTIVUS/ritonavir, and frequently throughout the duration of treatment.
If asymptomatic elevations in AST or ALT greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal occur, APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy should be discontinued. If asymptomatic elevations in AST or ALT between 5 – 10 times the upper limit of normal and increases in total bilirubin greater than 2.5 times the upper limit of normal occur, APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy should be discontinued.
Treatment-experienced patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C co-infection or elevated transaminases are at approximately 2-fold risk for developing Grade 3 or 4 transaminase elevations or hepatic decompensation. In two large, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trials with an active comparator (1182.12 and 1182.48) of treatment-experienced patients, Grade 3 and 4 increases in hepatic transaminases were observed in 10.3% (10.9/100 PEY) receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir through week 48. In a study of treatment-naïve patients, 20.3% (21/100 PEY) experienced Grade 3 or 4 hepatic transaminase elevations while receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir 500 mg/200 mg through week 48.
Tipranavir is principally metabolized by the liver. Caution should be exercised when administering APTIVUS/ritonavir to patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A) because tipranavir concentrations may be increased [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
APTIVUS, co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir, has been associated with reports of both fatal and non-fatal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Many of these patients had other medical conditions or were receiving concomitant medications that may have caused or contributed to these events. No pattern of abnormal coagulation parameters has been observed in patients in general, or preceding the development of ICH. Therefore, routine measurement of coagulation parameters is not currently indicated in the management of patients on APTIVUS.
Risk Of Serious Adverse Reactions Due To Drug Interactions
Initiation of APTIVUS/ritonavir, a CYP3A inhibitor, in patients receiving medications metabolized by CYP3A or initiation of medications metabolized by CYP3A in patients already receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir, may increase plasma concentrations of medications metabolized by CYP3A. Initiation of medications that inhibit or induce CYP3A may increase or decrease concentrations of APTIVUS/ritonavir, respectively. These interactions may lead to:
- Clinically significant adverse reactions, potentially leading to severe, life-threatening, or fatal events from greater exposures of concomitant medications.
- Clinically significant adverse reactions from greater exposures of APTIVUS/ritonavir.
- Loss of therapeutic effect of APTIVUS/ritonavir and possible development of resistance.
See Table 4 for steps to prevent or manage these possible and known significant drug interactions, including dosing recommendations [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Consider the potential for drug interactions prior to and during APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy; review concomitant medications during APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy; and monitor for the adverse reactions associated with the concomitant medications [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Effects On Platelet Aggregation And Coagulation
APTIVUS/ritonavir should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from trauma, surgery or other medical conditions, or who are receiving medications known to increase the risk of bleeding such as antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, or who are taking supplemental high doses of vitamin E.
In rats, tipranavir treatment alone induced dose-dependent changes in coagulation parameters, bleeding events and death. Co-administration with vitamin E significantly increased these effects [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. However, analyses of stored plasma from adult patients treated with APTIVUS capsules and pediatric patients treated with APTIVUS oral solution (which contains a vitamin E derivative) showed no effect of APTIVUS/ritonavir on vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (Factor II and Factor VII), Factor V, or on prothrombin or activated partial thromboplastin times.
In in vitro experiments, tipranavir was observed to inhibit human platelet aggregation at levels consistent with exposures observed in patients receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir.
Vitamin E Intake
Patients taking APTIVUS oral solution should be advised not to take supplemental vitamin E greater than a standard multivitamin as APTIVUS oral solution contains 116 IU/mL of vitamin E which is higher than the Reference Daily Intake (adults 30 IU, pediatrics approximately 10 IU).
Rash, including urticarial rash, maculopapular rash, and possible photosensitivity, has been reported in subjects receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir. In some cases rash was accompanied by joint pain or stiffness, throat tightness, or generalized pruritus. In controlled adult clinical trials, rash (all grades, all causality) was observed in 10% of females and in 8% of males receiving APTIVUS/ritonavir through 48 weeks of treatment. The median time to onset of rash was 53 days and the median duration of rash was 22 days. The discontinuation rate for rash in clinical trials was 0.5%. In an uncontrolled compassionate use program (n=3920), cases of rash, some of which were severe, accompanied by myalgia, fever, erythema, desquamation, and mucosal erosions were reported. In the pediatric clinical trial, the frequency of rash (all grades, all causality) through 48 weeks of treatment was 21%. Overall, most of the pediatric patients had mild rash and 5 (5%) had moderate rash. Overall 3% of pediatric patients interrupted APTIVUS treatment due to rash and the discontinuation rate for rash in pediatric patients was 0.9%. Discontinue and initiate appropriate treatment if severe skin rash develops.
APTIVUS should be used with caution in patients with a known sulfonamide allergy. Tipranavir contains a sulfonamide moiety. The potential for cross-sensitivity between drugs in the sulfonamide class and APTIVUS is unknown.
New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia have been reported during post-marketing surveillance in HIV-1 infected patients receiving protease inhibitor therapy. Some patients required either initiation or dose adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents for treatment of these events. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred. In those patients who discontinued protease inhibitor therapy, hyperglycemia persisted in some cases. Because these events have been reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made and a causal relationship between protease inhibitor therapy and these events has not been established.
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including APTIVUS. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis, or reactivation of herpes simplex and herpes zoster), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution, however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
Treatment with APTIVUS co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir has resulted in large increases in the concentration of total cholesterol and triglycerides [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Triglyceride and cholesterol testing should be performed prior to initiating APTIVUS/ritonavir therapy and at periodic intervals during therapy. Lipid disorders should be managed as clinically appropriate; taking into account any potential drug-drug interactions [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patients With Hemophilia
There have been reports of increased bleeding, including spontaneous skin hematomas and hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia type A and B treated with protease inhibitors. In some patients additional Factor VIII was given. In more than half of the reported cases, treatment with protease inhibitors was continued or reintroduced if treatment had been discontinued. A causal relationship between protease inhibitors and these events has not been established.
Because the potential for HIV-1 cross-resistance among protease inhibitors has not been fully explored in APTIVUS/ritonavir treated patients, it is unknown what effect therapy with APTIVUS will have on the activity of subsequently administered protease inhibitors.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
- Hepatic Impairment and Toxicity
Inform patients that APTIVUS co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir, has been associated with severe liver disease, including some deaths. Patients with signs or symptoms of clinical hepatitis should discontinue APTIVUS/ritonavir treatment and seek medical evaluation. Symptoms of hepatitis include fatigue, malaise, anorexia, nausea, jaundice, bilirubinuria, acholic stools, liver tenderness or hepatomegaly. Extra vigilance is needed for patients with chronic hepatitis B or C co-infection, as these patients have an increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity. Liver function tests should be performed prior to initiating therapy with APTIVUS and 200 mg of ritonavir, and frequently throughout the duration of treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis B or C co-infection or elevations in liver enzymes prior to treatment are at increased risk (approximately 2-fold) for developing further liver enzyme elevations or severe liver disease. Caution should be exercised when administering APTIVUS/ritonavir to patients with liver enzyme abnormalities or history of chronic liver disease. Increased liver function testing is warranted in these patients. APTIVUS should not be given to patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment.
- Intracranial Hemorrhage
Inform patients that APTIVUS co-administered with 200 mg of ritonavir has been associated with reports of both fatal and non-fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Patients should report any unusual or unexplained bleeding to their physician.
- Drug Interactions
APTIVUS may interact with some drugs; therefore, advise patients to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or non-prescription medications or herbal products, particularly St. John’s wort.
- Use of Vitamin E
Advise patients taking APTIVUS oral solution not to take supplemental vitamin E greater than a standard multivitamin as APTIVUS oral solution contains 116 IU/mL of vitamin E and when taken at the recommended maximum dose of 500 mg/200 mg tipranavir/ritonavir BID, results in a daily dose of 1160 IU. This intake is higher than the Reference Daily Intake (adults 30 IU, pediatrics approximately 10 IU).
Rash, including flat or raised rashes or sensitivity to the sun, have been reported in approximately 10% of subjects receiving APTIVUS. Some patients who developed rash also had one or more of the following symptoms: joint pain or stiffness, throat tightness, generalized itching, muscle aches, fever, redness, blisters, or peeling of the skin. Women taking birth control pills may get a skin rash. Tell patients to discontinue use of APTIVUS and call their physician right away if any of these symptoms develop.
- Sulfa Allergy
Tell patients to report any history of sulfonamide allergy to the physician.
Women receiving estrogen-based hormonal contraceptives should be instructed that additional or alternative contraceptive measures should be used during therapy with APTIVUS/ritonavir. There may be an increased risk of rash when APTIVUS is given with hormonal contraceptives.
- Fat Redistribution
Inform patients that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time.
Inform patients that APTIVUS must be co-administered with ritonavir to ensure its therapeutic effect. Failure to correctly co-administer APTIVUS with ritonavir will result in reduced plasma levels of tipranavir that may be insufficient to achieve the desired antiviral effect.
- APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir capsules or solution can be taken with or without meals
- APTIVUS co-administered with ritonavir tablets must only be taken with meals
Tell patients that sustained decreases in plasma HIV-1 RNA have been associated with a reduced risk of progression to AIDS and death. Patients should remain under the care of a physician while using APTIVUS. Advise patients to take APTIVUS and other concomitant antiretroviral therapy every day as prescribed. APTIVUS, coadministered with ritonavir, must be given in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Patients should not alter the dose or discontinue therapy without consulting with their healthcare professional. If a dose of APTIVUS is missed, patients should take the dose as soon as possible and then return to their normal schedule. However, if a dose is skipped the patient should not double the next dose.
APTIVUS is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections.
Patients should remain under the care of a physician when using APTIVUS.
Patients should be advised to avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1 infection to others.
- Do not share needles or other injection equipment.
- Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
- Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safe sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
- Do not breastfeed. It is not known if APTIVUS can be passed to your baby in your breast milk and whether it could harm your baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk.
FDA-Approved Patient Labeling
PATIENT INFORMATION is supplied as a tear-off following the full prescribing information.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have been conducted with tipranavir. Mice were administered 30, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day tipranavir, 150/40 mg/kg/day tipranavir/ritonavir in combination, or 40 mg/kg/day ritonavir. The incidences of benign hepatocellular adenomas and combined adenomas/carcinomas were increased in females of all groups except the low dose of tipranavir. These tumors were also increased in male mice at the high-dose of tipranavir and the tipranavir/ritonavir combination group. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence was increased in female mice given the high dose of tipranavir and both sexes receiving tipranavir/ritonavir. The combination of tipranavir and ritonavir caused an exposure-related increase in this same tumor type in both sexes. The clinical relevance of the carcinogenic findings in mice is unknown. Systemic exposures in mice (based on AUC or Cmax) at all dose levels tested were below those in humans receiving the recommended dose level. Rats were administered 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day tipranavir, 100/26.7 mg/kg/day tipranavir/ritonavir in combination, or 10 mg/kg/day ritonavir. No drug-related findings in male rats were observed. At the highest dose of tipranavir, an increased incidence of benign follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid gland was observed in female rats. Based on AUC measurements, exposure to tipranavir at this dose level in rats is approximately equivalent to exposure in humans at the recommended therapeutic dose. This finding is probably not relevant to humans, because thyroid follicular cell adenomas are considered a rodentspecific effect secondary to enzyme induction.
Tipranavir showed no evidence of mutagenicity or clastogenicity in a battery of five in vitro and in vivo tests including the Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay using S. typhimurium and E. coli, unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes, induction of gene mutation in Chinese hamster ovary cells, a chromosome aberration assay in human peripheral lymphocytes, and a micronucleus assay in mice.
Tipranavir had no effect on fertility or early embryonic development in rats at dose levels up to 1000 mg/kg/day, equivalent to a Cmax of 258 μM in females. Based on Cmax levels in these rats, as well as an exposure (AUC) of 1670 μM·h in pregnant rats from another study, this exposure was approximately equivalent to the anticipated exposure in humans at the recommended dose level of 500/200 mg APTIVUS/ritonavir BID.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C.
Investigation of fertility and early embryonic development with tipranavir disodium was performed in rats, teratogenicity studies were performed in rats and rabbits, and pre- and post-natal development were explored in rats.
No teratogenicity was detected in reproductive studies performed in pregnant rats and rabbits up to dose levels of 1000 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day tipranavir, respectively, at exposure levels approximately 1.1-fold and 0.1-fold human exposure. At 400 mg/kg/day and above in rats, fetal toxicity (decreased sternebrae ossification and body weights) was observed, corresponding to an AUC of 1310 μM·h or approximately 0.8-fold human exposure at the recommended dose. In rats and rabbits, fetal toxicity was not noted at 40 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day, respectively, corresponding accordingly to Cmax/AUC0-24h levels of 30.4 μM/340 μM·h and 8.4 μM/120 μM·h. These exposure levels (AUC) are approximately 0.2-fold and 0.1-fold the exposure in humans at the recommended dose.
In pre- and post-development studies in rats, tipranavir showed no adverse effects at 40 mg/kg/day (~0.2-fold human exposure), but caused growth inhibition in pups and maternal toxicity at dose levels of 400 mg/kg/day (~0.8-fold human exposure). No post-weaning functions were affected at any dose level.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. APTIVUS should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to APTIVUS, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling (800) 258-4263.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1 infected mothers not breast-feed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1. Because of both the potential for HIV-1 transmission and any possible adverse effects of APTIVUS, mothers should be instructed not to breast-feed if they are receiving APTIVUS.
The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and virologic and immunologic responses of APTIVUS oral solution and capsules were evaluated in HIV-1 infected pediatric patients age 2 to 18 years [see ADVERSE REACTIONS and Clinical Studies].
The most frequent adverse reactions (grades 2-4) were similar to those described in adults. However, rash was reported more frequently in pediatric patients than in adults [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The risk-benefit has not been established in pediatric patients < 2 years of age.
Clinical studies of APTIVUS/ritonavir did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. In general, caution should be exercised in the administration and monitoring of APTIVUS in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Tipranavir is principally metabolized by the liver. Caution should be exercised when administering APTIVUS/ritonavir to patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) hepatic impairment because tipranavir concentrations may be increased [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. APTIVUS/ritonavir is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe (Child-Pugh Class B or Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
There is no known antidote for APTIVUS overdose. Treatment of overdose should consist of general supportive measures, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the patient’s clinical status. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed tipranavir should be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage. Administration of activated charcoal may also be used to aid in removal of unabsorbed drug. Since tipranavir is highly protein bound, dialysis is unlikely to provide significant removal of the drug.
APTIVUS is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe (Child-Pugh Class B or C, respectively) hepatic impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Co-administration of APTIVUS/ritonavir with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP 3A for clearance or are potent CYP 3A inducers are contraindicated (see Table 1). These recommendations are based on either drug interaction studies or they are predicted interactions due to the expected magnitude of interaction and potential for serious events or loss of efficacy. For information regarding clinical recommendations [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Table 1 : Drugs that are Contraindicated with APTIVUS Co-Administered with Ritonavir
||Drugs within Class that are Contraindicated with APTIVUS Co-administered with Ritonavir
|Alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist
||Potentially increased alfuzosin concentrations can result in hypotension.
||Amiodarone, bepridil, flecainide, propafenone, quinidine
||Potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias secondary to increases in plasma concentrations of antiarrhythmics.
||May lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance to APTIVUS or to the class of protease inhibitors or other coadministered antiretroviral agents.
||Dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, ergotamine, methylergonovine
||Potential for acute ergot toxicity characterized by peripheral vasospasm and ischemia of the extremities and other tissues.
|GI motility agent
||Potential for cardiac arrhythmias.
||St. John’s wort (hypericum perforatum)
||May lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance to APTIVUS or to the class of protease inhibitors.
|HMG CoA reductase inhibitors
||Potential for myopathy including rhabdomyolysis.
||Potential for cardiac arrhythmias.
||Sildenafil (Revatio) [for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension]
||A safe and effective dose has not been established when used with APTIVUS/ritonavir. There is increased potential for sildenafil-associated adverse events (which include visual disturbances, hypotension, prolonged erection, and syncope).
||Oral midazolam, triazolam
||Prolonged or increased sedation or respiratory depression.
Due to the need for co-administration of APTIVUS with ritonavir, please refer to the ritonavir prescribing information for a description of ritonavir contraindications.