CaloMist Nasal Spray information, interactions and side effects, Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of vitamin B12 with activity equivalent to the endogenous form of vitamin B12. The chemical name is α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) cyanocobamide. The cobalt content is 4.35%. The molecular formula is C63H88CoN14O14P, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 1355.4 and the following structural formula:
Cyanocobalamin occurs as dark red crystals, orthorhombic needles, or crystalline red powder and is very hygroscopic in the anhydrous form, and sparingly to moderately soluble in water (1:80). The pharmacologic activity of cyanocobalamin is destroyed by heavy metals (iron) and strong oxidizing or reducing agents (Vitamin C), but not by autoclaving for short periods of time (15-20 minutes) at 121° C. The vitamin B12 coenzymes are very unstable in light.
Each bottle of CaloMist Nasal Spray contains cyanocobalamin, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate monobasic, benzyl alcohol, sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride in purified water with an attached spray pump unit.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
CaloMist Nasal Spray is indicated for maintenance of vitamin B12 concentrations after normalization with intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency who have no nervous system involvement.
Important Limitations of Use
CaloMist Nasal Spray has not been evaluated for the treatment of newly diagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency.
CaloMist Nasal Spray is not suitable for use in the vitamin B12 absorption test (Schilling Test).
The effectiveness of CaloMist Nasal Spray in patients with nasal pathology (e.g., nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis, upper respiratory infections) has not been determined. Treatment with CaloMist Nasal Spray should be deferred until nasal symptoms have subsided [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS].
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended initial dose of CaloMist Nasal Spray is one spray in each nostril once daily (25 mcg per nostril, total daily dose 50 mcg). The dose should be increased to one spray in each nostril twice daily (total daily dose 100 mcg) for patients with an inadequate response to once daily dosing.
The dosing of CaloMist Nasal Spray and other intranasal medications should be separated by several hours, and these patients should have more frequent monitoring of vitamin B12 concentrations because of the potential for erratic absorption.
Priming (Activation) of Pump
The pump must be primed before the bottle is used for the first time. To prime the pump, place the nozzle between the first and second finger with the thumb on the bottom of the bottle. Pump the unit firmly and quickly then repeat this priming an additional 6 times for a total of 7 priming sprays. Now the nasal spray is ready for first-time use. If 5 or more days elapse since last use, the pump must be re-primed with two re-priming sprays.
Additional instructions are provided in the patient instruction sheet [see Patient Counseling Information].
Dosage Forms and Strengths
CaloMist Nasal Spray (cyanocobalamin, USP) is a solution of cyanocobalamin, USP, for administration as a metered spray to the nasal mucosa. Each bottle of CaloMist Nasal Spray contains 18 mL of a 25 mcg/0.1 mL solution of cyanocobalamin. The spray solution has a pH between 6.5 and 7.5. After initial priming, each spray delivers 25 mcg of cyanocobalamin. Each bottle will deliver 60 sprays for a total of thirty 50 mcg doses of CaloMist Nasal Spray.
AND STORAGE AND HANDLING
CaloMist Nasal Spray is available as a metered dose spray in 30 mL plastic bottles containing 18 mL of solution. CaloMist Nasal Spray is available in a dosage strength of 25 mcg cyanocobalamin, USP, per actuation (0.1 mL/actuation). CaloMist Nasal Spray is provided in a carton containing one bottle of nasal spray solution affixed with a nasal spray pump, a package insert, and a patient instruction sheet. One bottle delivers thirty 50 mcg doses (60 sprays) (NDC 0256-0203-01).
Protect from light. Store upright at a controlled temperature of 15 to 30° C (59 to 86° F).
Protect from freezing.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described below and in Table 1 reflect exposure in 25 subjects (age range 27-82 years; 17 women; 21 Caucasians) with vitamin B12 deficiency (12 with pernicious anemia, 4 secondary to gastrointestinal surgery, 9 with unknown cause) who received CaloMist Nasal Spray 50 mcg daily for 8 weeks in an uncontrolled clinical trial. Prior to enrollment, all subjects were required to have normal vitamin B12 levels with intramuscular vitamin BI2 injections. One patient who completed the study developed epistaxis on Day 12 of dosing and was noted to have irritation of the right nasal septum at study end. This patient had pre-existing allergic rhinitis and required a doubling of the CaloMist Nasal Spray dose during the last week of the study because of declining vitamin B12 concentrations.
Table 1. Potentially related adverse reactions reported during 8 weeks of treatment with CaloMist Nasal Spray in an uncontrolled clinical trial.
||CaloMist Nasal Spray (cyanocobalamin)
|Influenza Like Illness
Experience with Parenteral Vitamin B12
The following adverse reactions have been reported with parenteral vitamin B12:
Generalized: Anaphylactic shock and death
Cardiovascular: Pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure early in treatment Peripheral vascular thrombosis
Hematological : Polycythemia vera
Gastrointestinal: Mild transient diarrhea Dermatological: Itching; transitory exanthema
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of cyanocobalamin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Angioedema and angioedema-like reactions [See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS]
Most antibiotics, methotrexate, and pyrimethamine invalidate the vitamin B12 diagnostic blood assays.
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Hematocrit, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, and iron levels should be obtained prior to treatment. All hematologic parameters, including vitamin B12 concentrations, should be normal before initiating treatment with CaloMist Nasal Spray. Periodic monitoring of serum vitamin B12 concentrations must be obtained to confirm adequacy of therapy. Vitamin B12 concentrations and complete blood counts should be monitored one month after starting CaloMist Nasal Spray and then at 3 to 6 month intervals thereafter. Patients with borderline-low vitamin B12 concentrations (<300 ng/L) should also undergo measurement of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations, which are more sensitive measures of vitamin B12 deficiency in this setting.
Patients with declining or abnormally low vitamin B12 concentrations despite maximal doses of CaloMist Nasal Spray should be switched back to intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Vitamin B12 deficiency that is inadequately treated for longer than three months may produce irreversible neurological damage.
Use in Patients With Nasal Pathology
CaloMist Nasal Spray has not been evaluated in patients with nasal pathology. Treatment with CaloMist Nasal Spray should be deferred until nasal symptoms have subsided. Patients with chronic nasal symptoms or significant nasal pathology are not ideal candidates for intranasal vitamin B12 therapy. If CaloMist Nasal Spray therapy is attempted in these patients, vitamin B12 concentrations should be monitored more frequently than in patients without nasal pathology because of the potential for erratic or blunted absorption.
Use in Patients with Leber’s Disease
Patients with early Leber’s disease (hereditary optic nerve atrophy) who were treated with cyanocobalamin suffered severe and swift optic atrophy. Cyanocobalamin should not be used in these patients.
Anaphylaxis and Angioedema
Anaphylactic shock, death, and angioedema were not reported in the CaloMist Nasal Spray clinical trial but have been reported with parenteral vitamin B12 administration.
Megaloblastic anemia has many causes, including vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency. Folic acid may result in a hematological response in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, but will not prevent irreversible neurological manifestations. Vitamin B12 is not an appropriate treatment for folate deficiency.
Hypokalemia, thrombocytosis, and sudden death may occur when severe megaloblastic anemia is treated intensely with vitamin B12. Serum potassium and the platelet count should be carefully monitored in this setting.
Blunted Response to Vitamin B12 Therapy
Infections, uremia, concurrent iron or folic acid deficiency, and drugs with bone marrow suppressant properties (e.g., chloramphenicol) may blunt the therapeutic response to vitamin B12 products, including CaloMist Nasal Spray.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
There are no long-term studies in animals that have evaluated the carcinogenic potential of any of the vitamin B12 products, including CaloMist Nasal Spray. There is no evidence from long-term use in patients with pernicious anemia that vitamin B12 is carcinogenic. Pernicious anemia is associated with an increased incidence of carcinoma of the stomach, but this malignancy has been attributed to the underlying pathology of pernicious anemia and not to treatment with vitamin B12.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with CaloMist Nasal Spray. Although vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin and requirements are increased during pregnancy, it is not known whether CaloMist Nasal Spray can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. CaloMist Nasal Spray should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. Adequate and well-controlled studies have not been conducted in pregnant women.
Although vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin and requirements are increased during lactation, it is not known whether CaloMist Nasal Spray can cause harm to an infant when administered to a nursing woman. Vitamin B12 appears in the milk of nursing mothers in concentrations that approximate the mother’s vitamin B12 blood level. Caution should be exercised when CaloMist Nasal Spray is administered to a nursing woman.
Because CaloMist Nasal Spray has not been studied in children, safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of CaloMist Nasal Spray did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent renal or hepatic disease may require increased doses or more frequent administration of vitamin B12 therapy.
Sensitivity to cobalt, vitamin B12, or any component of this product [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS].